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yabo亚搏手机版app:中国历史第一城,死于907年
名称:yabo亚搏手机版app:中国历史第一城,死于907年
详细介绍

In the fifth year of Huichang of the Tang Dynasty (845), the poet Li Shangyin (c. 813-c. 858) of the late Tang dynasty climbed the highest land of Leyouyuan in Chang'an on an evening when the empire was declining and in a bad mood.

唐徽昌五年(845年),唐朝末代诗人李商隐(约813-858年)在帝国衰落的一个晚上攀登了长安乐游园的最高地。心情不好

Standing on the commanding heights, overlooking this thousand-year-old capital, he wrote "Le You Yuan" which was widely recited in the future:

他站在制高点上,俯瞰着这座拥有数千年历史的首都,并写了《乐游苑》,此乐坛后来被广泛引用:

As a thousand-year-old city whose capital has been established since the Western Zhou Dynasty, Chang'an has been prosperous for nearly two thousand years at this time, but this twin star city, also known as Luoyang, has begun to dim its stars.

长安作为一个自西周建国以来已有千多年历史的城市,此时的昌盛已经发展了将近2000年,但是这个双星城市又称洛阳,已经开始淡化它的历史。星。

At this time, it was 62 years before the fall of Datang and Chang'an.

此时,距大唐和长安沦陷已经62年了。

In Chinese history, various unified dynasties and various forces have established 217 capitals, but Chang'an was the oldest capital city. Before the Song Dynasty, there were 11 dynasties, 3 emperors in exile, and 3 peasant leaders. The establishment of the capital lasted 1077 years.

在中国历史上,各个王朝和各种力量建立了217个首都,但长安却是最古老的首都。宋以前,有11个王朝,3个流亡皇帝和3个农民领袖。首都的建立持续了1077年。

As the largest capital in China’s history, Datang Chang’an City is the largest in the past with an area of ​​87.27 square kilometers: Chang’an City in the Tang Dynasty is even 1.8 times larger than Luoyang City in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, 1.9 times larger than Nanjing City in the Ming Dynasty, and larger than in the Qing Dynasty. Beijing City University is 1.4 times larger.

作为中国历史上最大的首都,大唐长安市是过去最大的城市,面积87.27平方公里:唐代长安市甚至是隋唐时期洛阳市的1.8倍王朝是明代南京市的1.9倍,比清朝大。北京城市大学大1.4倍。

The direct origin of Chang'an City in the Tang Dynasty was Daxing City in the Sui Dynasty.

唐代长安市的直接起源是隋朝的大兴市。

Emperor Wen opened the emperor for three years (583 years). He felt that the old Chang'an city built in the Han Dynasty lasted 800 years. The city was small and war-torn, coupled with the 800 years of human and animal dung and other life pollution. Salty brine is not very pleasant", so Sui Wen Emperor Yang Jian instructed an architectural expert

温帝开皇三年(583年)。他觉得汉代建的长安古城可以持续800年。这个城市很小,饱受战争的摧残,再加上人类和动物粪便已有800多年的历史,并污染了其他生命。咸盐水不是很宜人”,隋文帝杨健指示建筑专家

In the Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty inherited Daxing City as its capital, and added Daming Palace and other buildings. Like Li Shangyin, the poet Bai Juyi (772-846) boarded the Qinling Wutai Guanyintai, the main peak of Qinling Wutai in the south of Chang'an early in the morning. Looking back at this majestic and well-planned capital:

唐代,唐代继承大兴市为首府,并增设了大明宫等建筑。像李尚银一样,诗人白居易(772-846)于清晨登上秦岭五台观音台,这是长安南部秦岭五台的主峰。回顾这座宏伟且精心计划的首都:

At that time, in the memories of various poets, this was a capital of a country and a city full of poetry and painting. Han Yu (768-824) wrote in "Early Spring Chengshui Department Zhang Shibayuanwai Two Songs":

当时,在各种诗人的记忆中,这是一个充满诗词和绘画的国家和城市的首都。韩愈(768-824)在《成都市春秋部张士八院外两首歌》中写道:

Poets are full of pride in this magnificent capital. King Luo Bin (c. 619-c. 687) wrote in "The Imperial Palace":

诗人为这座宏伟的首都感到骄傲。罗斌国王(约619年至687年)在《故宫》中写道:

However, after welcoming the glory of nearly two thousand years, Chang'an City is about to come to the end of its fall in the magnificence of Tang poetry. In fact, after the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907, Chang'an City completely declined and never became the official capital of the unified dynasty. Investigating the origin of history, why did a city that had prospered for nearly two thousand years perished in the Tang Dynasty? Falling down sharply in the future?

然而,在迎接了近两千年的辉煌之后,长安城在唐诗的壮丽中即将走到尽头。实际上,唐朝在907年沦陷后,长安市完全衰落,从未成为统一王朝的正式首都。考察历史的起源,为什么唐朝繁荣了近两千年的城市却灭亡了?将来会急剧下降吗?

Speaking of which, first of all, it originated from the peak population and hidden crisis of the Datang Empire.

首先,它源于人口高峰和大唐帝国的隐患。

In the second year of Emperor Ping of the Western Han Dynasty (AD 2), China's population was 59.59 million at that time. After the turbulence of the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, the Sui Dynasty, which had unified the country in the 5th year (609), had a statistical imperial population of 46.02 million After entering the Tang Dynasty, in the thirteenth year of Emperor Taizong's Zhenguan (639 years), due to war and chaos and population fleeing, at the time of the founding of the People's Republic of China, the population controlled by the government was only 12.35 million.

西汉平帝第二年(公元2年),当时中国的人口为5959万。在魏晋南北朝的动荡之后,隋朝在第5年(609年)统一了该国,统计的帝国人口为4,602万。唐朝进入第十三年(唐朝)。太宗皇帝的贞观(639年),由于战争和混乱以及人口流离失所,在中华人民共和国成立时,政府控制的人口只有1235万人。

After more than one hundred years of development, in the fourteenth year of Emperor Xuanzong’s Tianbao (755 years), the official population at that time was 52.91 million. Taking into account the problem of population escape, demographers estimated that the population of China had reached 80 million at that time, more than The peak period of the Han Dynasty.

经过一百多年的发展,在宣宗天宝十四年(755年),当时的官方人口为5291万。考虑到人口逃逸问题,人口统计学家估计当时中国的人口已达到8000万,超过了汉朝的鼎盛时期。

As the imperial Kyoto, demographers estimated that there were more than one million people in the city of Chang'an at that time, and the Guanzhong Plain, where Chang'an was located, had a population of more than three million. For an empire, the population was extremely prosperous. It means that the excessive exploitation of material supply is about to enter a state of serious imbalance.

人口统计学家估计,作为帝制京都,当时的长安市人口超过100万人,长安所在的关中平原人口超过300万人。对于一个帝国来说,人口非常繁荣。这意味着对物资供应的过度开采将进入严重的不平衡状态。

First of all, this is manifested in the sharp decline of forest resources in Guanzhong area.

首先,这表现为关中地区森林资源的急剧减少。

As the earliest "country of abundance" in Chinese ancient books, the Guanzhong Plain area where Chang'an is located was originally a beautiful ecological environment with fertile fields and dense forests.

长安所处的关中平原地区,是中国古代书籍中最早的“富国”,原本是一片美丽的生态环境,土地肥沃,森林茂密。

Li Shimin, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, described the scene of the imperial city of Chang'an on the edge of the Wei River and surrounded by forests in Wang Zhong Nanshan:

唐代太宗皇帝李世民在王中南山描写了渭河之滨,被森林包围的长安皇城的景象:

Du Mu (803-about 852), a poet of the late Tang Dynasty, once also recalled the dense forest vegetation surrounding Chang'an City in "Passing the Huaqing Palace":

唐末诗人杜牧(803-852年左右),曾在《穿越华清宫》中回想起长安城周围茂密的森林植被:

Although the poems describe the beauty, but inherited the Sui Dynasty and re-entered the Tang Dynasty, the Guanzhong area with Chang'an and its core gradually expanded, and the forest resources of the entire Guanzhong Plain were gradually being devastated. At that time, from Large-scale urban construction to the daily lives of residents, coupled with thousands of years of agricultural reclamation, has made the primitive forests around the Guanzhong Plain completely unrecognizable.

诗虽然描写美丽,但继承了隋朝,重新进入唐代,长安及其核心的关中地区逐渐扩大,整个关中平原的森林资源逐渐被破坏。当时,从大规模的城市建设到居民的日常生活,再加上数千年的农业开垦,使关中平原周围的原始森林完全无法识别。

At that time, the entire Guanzhong area

当时,整个关中地区

In this regard, the poet Du Mu of the Tang Dynasty once referred to the ancient in "A Fang Gong Fu" satirizing the Qin Dynasty, and it is also revealed today:

在这方面,唐代诗人杜牧曾提到讽刺秦朝的《阿方工夫》中的古代,今天也有记载:

After two thousand years of devastating development and destruction, the forest vegetation in Guanzhong area has declined sharply and the conservation of the forest has been lost. Accompanied by this, the once abundant water resources, known as the "eight waters around Chang'an" scene, has gradually disappeared.

经过两千多年的毁灭性发展和破坏,关中地区的森林植被急剧下降,森林的保护也丧失了。伴随着这一点,曾经丰富的水资源,被称为“长安八水”的景象,逐渐消失了。

In the pre-Qin period, the Guanzhong area was rich in water resources due to its many rivers and lakes. The surrounding areas of Chang'an were surrounded by the Wei, Jing, Feng, Lao, Chu, Chu, Chan and Ba rivers. Under the nourishment of water resources, the Guanzhong area Farmland irrigation is convenient,

在先秦时期,关中地区由于河流和湖泊众多,水资源丰富。长安周边地区被渭河,荆河,冯河,老挝河,楚河,楚河,Chan河和Ba河包围。在水资源的滋养下,关中地区农田灌溉方便,

Regarding the natural environment of the "Qinchuan and eight long rivers" in the Guanzhong area, Tang Zhongzong Li Xian (656-710) wrote in "Dengli Mountain High-top Residence":

关于关中地区“秦川八长河”的自然环境,唐忠宗李宪(656-710)在“登里山高楼住宅”中写道:

The poet Shao Yan of the Mid-Tang Dynasty also wrote in "Fu Dechun Fan Wei He":

唐代中叶诗人邵岩也曾在《傅德春范未和》中写道:

However, the pattern of "eight waters around Chang'an" and abundant water sources. After nearly two thousand years of deforestation and destruction from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, the Guanzhong area, where forest conservation has been lost, has continued to drastically reduce water resources until the end of the Tang Dynasty. , Jingshui, Weishui, Bashui and other rivers have smaller and smaller water flows, and the Longshou Canal, Qingming Canal and other artificial channels have also dried up; after entering the Northern Song Dynasty, the water flow in the "Eight Waters" was even smaller. The point where the water flows across the river.

但是,“长安八水”的格局和丰富的水源。自西周至唐朝近两千年的森林砍伐和破坏之后,失去森林保护的关中地区一直在大量减少水资源,直到唐代结束。 Jing水,渭水,坝水等河流的水流量越来越小,龙首运河,清明运河等人工河道也已枯竭。进入北宋以后,“八水”的水流就更小了。水流过河的地方。

According to statistics, since the Tang and Song dynasties, there have been 22 records of clear, exhausted, and dry water in the Guanzhong area. Among them, in the 45 years from the 22nd year of Kangxi (1683) to the 6th year of Yongzheng (1728) in the Qing Dynasty, the Weihe River and its tributaries, the most important river to nourish Chang'an, have been recorded as dry as six times. .

据统计,唐宋以来,关中地区已有清水,枯水,枯水的记录22幅。其中,在清康熙二十二年(1683年)至雍正六年(1728年)的45年中,记录了滋养长安的最重要河流渭河及其支流。干燥了六倍。

While the "eight waters around Chang'an" is fading away, with the deforestation, soil erosion in the Guanzhong area has become more and more serious, which has increased the frequency of natural disasters in the Guanzhong area:

在“长安八水”渐行渐远的同时,随着森林的砍伐,关中地区的水土流失变得越来越严重,这增加了关中地区自然灾害的发生频率:

According to statistics, from the 7th year of Wude in the Tang Dynasty (624) to the 29th year of Kaiyuan (741), 20 large-scale natural disasters occurred in the Gyeonggi area around Chang'an. There were 10 droughts, 7 floods, and 3 locust plagues.

据统计,从唐代武德七年(624)到开元第二十九年(741),长安京畿地区发生了20起大规模自然灾害。有10次干旱,7次洪水和3次蝗灾。

According to historical records, the Shaanxi Meteorological Bureau found that starting from the Qin Dynasty in the 2nd century BC, floods and droughts in the Guanzhong area increased over time. Among them, it happened in the mid-Tang Dynasty in the 8th century. 37 droughts occurred every 2.7 years on average.

根据历史记录,陕西省气象局发现,从公元前2世纪的秦朝开始,关中地区的水旱灾害随时间增加。其中,发生在八世纪中叶的唐代。平均每2.7年发生37次干旱。

The depletion of water sources and secondary natural disasters caused by deforestation in the Guanzhong area have also caused the ecological environment of Chang'an to deteriorate.

关中地区森林砍伐造成的水源枯竭和继发性自然灾害也使长安的生态环境恶化。

According to statistics, in the 289-year history of the Tang Empire, a total of 240 years of floods, droughts, locusts and other disasters occurred. When the empire’s politics was peaceful and the military was strong, Chang’an City and the Tang Empire could still be dealt with. However, when the strength of the Tang Empire declined after the Anshi Rebellion, such frequent disasters gradually became a fatal factor in destroying the empire.

据统计,在唐帝国289年的历史中,共发生了240年的洪水,干旱,蝗虫等灾害。当帝国政治平静,军事力量强大时,仍然可以应对长安市和唐帝国。但是,当安石起义后唐帝国的实力下降时,这种频繁的灾难逐渐成为摧毁该帝国的致命因素。

Under such circumstances, the crisis in Chang'an is becoming more and more urgent.

在这种情况下,长安的危机变得越来越紧迫。

While large-scale deforestation led to the gradual disappearance of the "eight waters around Chang'an", the Guanzhong area that lost its forest conservation was increasingly experiencing floods with rain, and drought without rain. This was reflected in the Yellow River in the Tang Dynasty. Formally formed.

虽然大规模的森林砍伐导致“长安附近的八水域”逐渐消失,但失去森林保护的关中地区却越来越多地遭受雨水洪水和干旱而无雨水的袭击。这反映在唐代的黄河上。正式形成。

In fact, in the pre-Qin and the early Qin and Western Han dynasties, the ancients referred to the "Yellow River" as "river" because the water quality of the Yellow River at that time was clear and there was no problem of large-scale carrying of sediment.

实际上,在先秦,先秦和西汉时期,古人称“黄河”为“河”,因为当时黄河水质清澈,没有大水的问题。规模的沉积物携带。

In the pre-Qin period before the Warring States period, there were still vast virgin forests in the Yellow River basin at that time, so the ancestors cut down large trees such as sandalwood here. The clear water quality of the "river water" became the object of praise in ancient poetry. However, in the late Warring States period, Under the influence of human reclamation and war destruction, the forest in the middle reaches of the Yellow River began to experience the first large-scale destruction.

在战国时代之前的先秦时期,当时的黄河流域仍然有广阔的原始森林,因此祖先在这里砍伐了檀香等大树。 “河水”的清澈水质成为古代诗歌赞美的对象。然而,在战国后期,在人类开垦和战争破坏的影响下,黄河中游的森林开始经历了第一次大规模破坏。

Taking Jinghe, a tributary of the Yellow River, for example, the sand content of Jinghe River in the late Warring States period was already high. With the capital of the Qin and Han Dynasties, the increasingly prosperous population activities and the management needs of the Guanzhong region have caused large-scale deforestation and farming to continue. As a result, in the middle of the Western Han Dynasty, the Jinghe River became more turbid, showing the characteristics of "one stone in Jingshui, and its muddy buckets".

以黄河支流Jing河为例,战国后期of河的含沙量已经很高。随着秦汉之都的发展,关中地区人口活动的日益繁荣和管理的需要,导致了大规模的森林砍伐和耕种活动的继续。结果,在西汉中期,the河变得更加浑浊,表现出“ Jing水一石,水桶浑浊”的特征。

In the late Warring States period, the Yellow River began to be called the "Zhuohe"; in the Tang Dynasty, as the imperial population soared, and the entire Yellow River basin became increasingly deforested, soil erosion, and sedimentation, the name of the "Yellow River" began to be fixed. . This is what Li Bai wrote in "Jiang Jinjiu":

战国后期,黄河开始被称为“ Z河”。在唐代,随着帝国人口的猛增,整个黄河流域的森林砍伐,水土流失和泥沙日益增多,“黄河”的名称开始被固定。 。这就是李白在《江金酒》中写道:

With the intensification of deforestation, the flooding of the Yellow River in the Tang Dynasty also intensified. According to statistics, during the 400 years of the Han Dynasty, the Yellow River only overflowed 9 times, an average of once every 40 years. In the 290-year history of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the Yellow River overflowed 24 times, with an average of 1 Once every 12 years, the frequency is greatly increased.

随着森林砍伐的加剧,唐代黄河泛滥也愈演愈烈。据统计,汉朝四百年来,黄河只溢流了九次,平均每四十年一次。在唐朝290年的历史中(618-907),黄河泛滥24次,平均每1年泛滥1次,泛滥的频率大大增加。

Due to the frequent flooding of the Yellow River and the impact of silt and silt on water transportation, Chang'an and Guanzhong areas, which rely on the Yellow River for water transportation, were fatally affected.

由于黄河泛滥,淤泥和淤泥对水运的影响,依赖黄河进行水运的长安和关中地区受到了致命的影响。

Due to the growing population, Chang'an in the Tang Dynasty had to rely on water transportation as its lifeline.

由于人口的增长,唐代长安不得不依靠水运作为生命线。

In the Western Han Dynasty, the population of Chang'an was only about 250,000. However, in the heyday of the Tang Dynasty, the population of Chang'an at its peak was as large as one million, and the population of the entire Guanzhong area reached 3 million.

在西汉,长安的人口只有25万左右。但是,在唐代鼎盛时期,长安人口高峰时高达一百万,整个关中地区人口达到三百万。

However, in contrast to the growing population that is waiting to be fed, there is less and less arable land in the Guanzhong area.

但是,与等待进食的人口不断增长相反,关中地区的耕地越来越少。

At that time, due to deforestation, serious soil erosion, land salinization, and reduced fertility, the irrigated farmland in the Guanzhong area dropped from 44,500 hectares in the Western Han Dynasty to 0.62 in the Tang Dynasty Zongda calendar years (766-779). Million ares.

当时,由于森林砍伐,严重的水土流失,土地盐碱化和肥力降低,关中地区的灌溉农田从西汉时期的44,500公顷下降到唐朝宗大历年(766-779年)的0.62。万亩。

That is to say, compared with the Western Han Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty Chang'an City, which had a population expansion of 400%, the surrounding land irrigated area decreased by 38,300 hectares year-on-year, with a decay rate of 86.1%.

也手机软件就是说,与西汉相比,唐代长安市人口增长了400%,周边土地灌溉面积同比减少了3.83万公顷,衰减率为86.1%。 %。

With no land and no food, the Sui and Tang empires, whose capital was Guanzhong Changan, became more and more embarrassed.

没有土地,没有食物,隋唐帝国(其首都为关中长安)变得越来越尴尬。

After the establishment of the Tang Dynasty in 618, despite the rebirth of the empire, the curse of food shortage has always plagued the emperors of the Tang Dynasty. As the Tang Dynasty gradually entered its heyday, the population of Guanzhong area continued to expand, and the food gap also skyrocketed in the early years of the Tang Dynasty. , Chang’an City’s annual grain gap is about 200,000 shi (42 kilograms per stone, or about 8.4 million kilograms). During the peak period, the gap reached 4 million shi (about 168 million kilograms). The annual food shortage in the city is still as high as 1 million shi (about 42 million kilograms).

618年唐朝建立后,尽管帝国得以重生,但粮食短缺的诅咒一直困扰着唐朝皇帝。随着唐朝逐渐进入鼎盛时期,关中地区的人口持续增长,唐朝初期的食物差距也急剧上升。 ,长安市的年度粮食缺口约为20万石(42公斤/石,约840万公斤)。在高峰时期,两者之间的差距达到了400万希(约合1.68亿公斤)。该市每年的粮食短缺仍然高达100万石(约4200万公斤)。

At that time, starting from the Mid-Tang Dynasty, China's economic center gradually shifted from the Yellow River basin to the Jianghuai region. This made the Guanzhong Plain, the core area of ​​the Datang Empire, to rely on the supply of grain, rice and wealth in the Jianghuai region to maintain its operation. At that time, the Jianghuai area supplied Chang'an's food and wealth, and it had to enter the Weishui River through the Yellow River, and then be supplied to Chang'an by water transportation. The Sanmenxia section of the Yellow River was very dangerous.

当时,从唐中期开始,中国的经济中心就从黄河流域逐渐转移到江淮地区。这使大唐帝国的核心地区关中平原能够依靠江淮地区的谷物,大米和财富供应来维持其运作。当时,江淮地区提供了长安的粮食和财富,不得不通过黄河进入渭水河,然后通过水运输送到长安。黄河三门峡段非常危险。

Due to the difficult supply of materials, under this circumstance, even in the good harvest years of the "nian valley", Chang'an City in the Tang Dynasty was still in short supply of food and "people are still lacking food". Once natural disasters such as water locusts occur, the emperor will have to Move east to Luoyang near the Yellow River and convenient for water transportation.

在这种情况下,由于物资供应困难,即使在“念谷”丰收的年代,唐代长安市仍供不应求,“人仍缺乏食物”。一旦发生水灾等自然灾害,皇帝将不得不东迁至黄河附近的洛阳,方便水运。

Take Tang Gaozong as an example. He reigned for 34 years (649-683). Among them, 11 years and 5 months lived in Luoyang. Three of the history books clearly mentioned that it was because Chang'an was short of food and moved to Luoyang to "food." After the death of her husband Tang Gaozong Li Zhi, Wu Zetian, who was subsequently in power, lived in Luoyang from 683 to 705, and 19 of 22 years. This is mainly because Luoyang is closer to the main grain producing areas such as the Jianghuai area, and there is no suffering of water transportation.

以唐高宗为例。他在位34年(649-683)。其中,有11岁5个月住在洛阳。有三本历史书清楚地提到,这是因为长安缺乏食物,并搬到洛阳去“吃”。丈夫唐高宗李智去世后,随后掌权的吴则天于683年至705年住在洛阳,享年22岁。这主要是因为洛阳距离江淮地区等主要粮食产区较近,没有水运之苦。

During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty (712-756), Li Longji moved to Luoyang five times because of food shortages in the Guanzhong area.

唐玄宗(712-756)统治期间,李隆基因关中地区粮食短缺而五次移居洛阳。

In the late Tang Xuanzong period, Jing Zhaoyin Pei Yaoqing presided over the reform, changing the water transportation through the Grand Canal from full navigation to segment navigation. For example, 18 li mountain roads were excavated in the Sanmenxia section of the Yellow River, and land transportation was used to avoid the natural dangers of the Yellow River in Sanmenxia, ​​and then continue to ship. Luck.

唐玄宗后期,荆兆印裴耀卿主持了改革,将通过大运河的水运从全航改为航段航。例如,在黄河三门峡段开挖了18条黎山公路,并通过陆路运输避免了三门峡黄河的自然危险,然后继续运输。运气。

On the basis of the reform of water transportation, from then until the Anshi Rebellion, through the Grand Canal and land transportation, the amount of grain entering the Guanzhong area from the Jianghuai River valley every year can reach the level of more than 2 million shi, which basically meets the food demand of the Guanzhong area. This allowed the Guanzhong area with a narrow land and few people to have enough food, and Tang Xuanzong finally didn't have to move east to Luoyang for "food".

在水运改革的基础上,从此直到安石起义,通过大运河和陆路运输,每年从江淮河谷进入关中地区的粮食量可达到200万石米以上。基本满足关中地区的粮食需求。这使关中地区土地狭and,人少,粮食充裕,唐玄宗终于不必东迁洛阳吃“饭”了。

On the basis of solving the problem of eating in the Guanzhong area, the Tang Empire gradually entered the peak of the Kaiyuan Prosperity. For this reason, the poet Du Fu wrote in "Recalling the Past":

在解决关中地区饮食问题的基础上,唐帝国逐渐进入开元繁荣的顶峰。因此,诗人杜甫在《回忆过去》中写道:

However, the frequent flooding of the Yellow River basin and the problem of silt and silt have not been resolved. In the political peace, the Tang Dynasty government has the ability to organize the dredging of the water transport hub and the Grand Canal. The management of the Grand Canal has begun to fall into disuse, which has severely threatened the water transport bloodline that maintains the survival of Chang'an City.

然而,黄河流域的洪水泛滥以及淤泥和淤泥的问题尚未得到解决。在政治和平中,唐朝政府有能力组织疏通水运枢纽和大运河。大运河的管理已开始被废弃,这严重威胁了维持长安市生存的输水血统。

The fourteenth anniversary of Emperor Xuanzong’s Tianbao (755 years), An Lushan raised troops in Hebei to rebel against Tang,

玄宗天宝十四周年(755年),安禄山在河北增兵抗击唐,

In fact, as early as the early Tang Dynasty, due to deforestation in the Guanzhong area and serious soil erosion, sediment accumulation in the Yellow River and Weishui River was very serious, and it was very difficult to sail.

实际上,早在唐初,由于关中地区的森林砍伐和严重的水土流失,黄河和渭水河的泥沙淤积非常严重,航行非常困难。

After the middle of the Tang Dynasty, some water canals from Weishui to Chang'an were often blocked by sediment and had to dig sand while sailing.

唐代中期以后,从渭水到长安的一些水渠经常被泥沙堵塞,航行时不得不挖沙。

After the Anshi Rebellion, the central financial and control power of the Tang Dynasty weakened, and the water resources in the Guanzhong area were increasingly depleted, and the flow and sediment in the Guanzhong area continued to silt. Therefore, by the end of the Tang Dynasty, the record of transport ships entering Chang'an via Weishui and Caoqu, Less and less, almost completely disappeared.

安石起义后,唐朝的中央财政和控制权减弱,关中地区的水资源日益枯竭,关中地区的水流和泥沙继续淤积。因此,到唐末,运输船经渭水和草渠进入长安的记录越来越少,几乎完全消失了。

And what Du Fu once wrote in "Leaving the Frontier"

杜甫曾经在《离开边境》中写道

The lack of self-production and the increasingly difficult water transportation relying on the Yellow River and the Grand Canal have made the water transportation bloodline that Chang'an and the entire Guanzhong region depend on increasingly silted up.

自给自足的缺乏和依靠黄河和大运河的水上运输日益困难,使长安乃至整个关中地区所依赖的水上运输路线日益淤塞。

In response to this, the poet Du Fu lamented in "Escape":

对此,诗人杜甫在《逃亡》中感叹道:

Due to the increasingly difficult transportation of water and the domineering vassal towns often blocked the Grand Canal after the Anshi Rebellion, Chang’an City fell into a dilemma of material supply after the Anshi Rebellion. In the second year of the Tang Dezong Zhenyuan (786), due to the transportation of grain to Chang’an The water transportation road was blocked by the feudal town, and the entire Chang'an city fell into a food shortage situation, which caused a disturbance in the Forbidden Army. At this time, exactly 30,000 Hu of rice was transported to the surrounding areas of Chang'an. After Tang Dezong heard the news, he almost shed tears and said to the Prince:

由于水的运输日益困难,霸权化的附庸城镇经常在安石起义后堵塞大运河,长安市在安石起义后陷入了物质供应的困境。唐德宗贞元二年(786),由于将粮食运往长安,水路被封建镇封锁,整个长安市陷入粮食短缺的局面。禁军的骚乱。此时,正好30,000胡的大米被运送到长安周边地区。唐德宗听到这一消息后,几乎流下了眼泪,对王子说:

While the ecology of the Guanzhong region is deteriorating, natural disasters continue to occur throughout the Yellow River Basin.

在关中地区生态恶化的同时,整个黄河流域继续发生自然灾害。

As a secondary disaster caused by deforestation and soil erosion, according to statistics, in the 289-year history of the Tang Empire, there were 240 years of floods, droughts, and locusts. Due to the serious flooding of the Yellow River and the frequent droughts, in fact, as early as the Tang Taizong period, the locust plagues that often accompanied floods and droughts began to frequently invade the entire Datang Empire from the second year of Zhenguan to the fourth year of Zhenguan (628-630). For example, for three years, the entire Datang Empire was under severe locust plagues. Since then, small locust plagues have erupted every few years, and large locust plagues have erupted every few decades, throughout the history of the Tang Dynasty. .

据统计,作为毁林和水土流失造成的第二次灾难,在唐帝国289年的历史中,洪水,干旱和蝗虫共发生了240年。实际上,由于黄河的严重洪灾和干旱的频繁发生,从唐太宗时期开始,经常伴随着洪涝和干旱的蝗灾就从贞观二年开始入侵整个大唐帝国。贞观四年(628-630)。例如,三年来,整个大唐帝国都遭受了严重的蝗灾。从那时起,在整个唐代历史上,小蝗灾每隔几年爆发一次,大蝗灾每隔几十年爆发一次。 。

In the three to four years of Emperor Xuanzong’s Kaiyuan period (715-716), a large-scale plague of locusts broke out again in the Tang Empire. At that time, some people advocated that locusts should be eliminated. At that time, even Prime Minister Lu Huaishen believed that locusts were natural disasters, and large-scale burials would occur. "Too much insecticide is hurting and friendly."

宣宗皇帝开元时期(715-716)的三到四年间,唐帝国再次爆发了大规模的蝗灾。当时,有人主张消除蝗虫。当时,甚至陆怀信总理也认为蝗虫是自然灾害,会发生大规模的葬礼。 “太多的杀虫剂是伤害和友好的。”

In this regard, even the great poet Bai Juyi naively wrote:

在这方面,甚至伟大的诗人白居易也天真地写道:

At that time, the people generally established the Eight Wax Temple and the Chongwang Temple to worship the locust god. In the case of the Shandong locust, the people even "or burned incense and worshipped by the field and did not dare to kill." Yao Chong, the prime minister, said angrily:

当时,人们普遍建立了八蜡庙和崇王庙供奉蝗虫神。以山东蝗虫为例,百姓甚至“烧田烧香,不敢杀人”。首相姚崇生气地说:

Yao Chong said that if the plague of locusts is not eliminated, it will inevitably lead to "the crops will be exhausted, and people will eat each other." For this reason, Yao Chong resolutely asked Tang Xuanzong to eliminate the locusts. ", then I, Yao Chong, asked to bear the punishment of God alone, "just don't look down on it." At the request of Yao Chong, Tang Xuanzong finally ordered the extermination of locusts, "from the continuous locust plague, there will be no great hunger" and "the locusts will gradually cease", thus laying the foundation for the arrival of the prosperity of Kaiyuan.

姚崇说,如果不消除蝗灾,将不可避免地导致“庄稼枯竭,人们会互相吃饭”。为此,姚崇坚决要求唐玄宗消灭蝗虫。 “然后,我姚崇要求独自承担上帝的惩罚,“不要轻视它。”应姚崇的要求,唐宣宗最终下令消灭蝗虫,“源源不断的蝗灾,就不会有饥饿感”,“蝗虫会逐渐消失”,从而为开元繁荣的到来奠定了基础。

However, when the Datang Empire was in political peace, the control of the locust plague was still controversial. Once turmoil occurred, the political execution power immediately declined.

但是,当大唐帝国实现政治和平时,对蝗灾的控制仍存在争议。一旦发生动乱,政治执行力立即下降。

After the Anshi Rebellion (755-763), the locust plagues in the Tang Dynasty increased markedly. Among them, there were three consecutive years of large locusts from 783 to 785, six consecutive years of large locusts from 836-841, eight consecutive years of large locusts from 862-869, and 875- In 878 there were four consecutive years of large locusts.

安石起义(755-763)之后,唐朝的蝗灾显着增加。其中,连续3年从783到785的大型蝗虫,连续6年从836-841的大型蝗虫,连续8年从862-869的大型蝗虫,和875-在878中连续四年的大型蝗虫。蝗虫。

In this context of separatist regimes, out-of-control political governance, and locust plagues, in the 9th year of Xiantong in the Tang Dynasty (868), due to the financial constraints of the Tang Dynasty and the deduction of soldiers’ salaries, the 800 soldiers in Xuzhou and Sizhou who were guarded in Guilin for a long time Exceeded the period of service but could not return home, then launched a mutiny and supported

在唐朝咸通九年(868年)的分离主义政权,失控的政治治理和蝗灾的背景下,由于唐朝的财政拮据和士兵工资的减少,在桂林长期守卫的徐州和泗州的800名士兵超过兵役但无法返回家园,然后发动兵变并支持

Due to the simultaneous occurrence of floods and locust plagues, countless victims who lost their support for survival have turned to Pang Xun’s army, making Pang Xun’s army rapidly expanded to 200,000 people. Despite the strong suppression of the Tang Dynasty and various towns and towns, Pang Xun failed. The Guilin Garrison Uprising led by Guilin spread rapidly with the help of floods and droughts.

由于洪水和蝗灾同时发生,无数幸存者失去了生存的支持,他们纷纷转向庞迅的军队,使庞迅的军队迅速扩大到20万人。尽管唐朝和各个城镇受到强烈镇压,庞迅失败了。在洪水和干旱的帮助下,以桂林为首的桂林驻军起义迅速蔓延。

After Pang Xun’s failure, the locust plague in the Tang Dynasty continued to spread. In the second year of Qianfu (875), the locust plague in the Tang Dynasty was "from east to west, covering the sun and passing the red land." During the great locust plague in the northern part of the empire, the bureaucratic group of the Tang dynasty fooled Tang Xizong and said that all the locusts went on a hunger strike and "all died of thorns." For this reason, several prime ministers at that time congratulated Tang Xizong that it was alive.

庞迅失败后,唐朝的蝗灾继续蔓延。在前夫第二年(875年),唐朝的蝗灾是“从东到西,覆盖着阳光,穿过红色的土地”。在帝国北部的一场蝗灾中,唐朝的官僚集团欺骗了唐熙宗,并说所有蝗虫都进行了绝食,“都死于荆棘”。因此,当时的几位总理祝贺唐熙宗活着。

Facing the situation of large-scale drought and the spread of locust plagues, at that time, some people cried out to the Tang Dynasty’s Shanzhou Observatory, Cui Yu, crying about the drought and the magnitude of the locust plague. Unexpectedly, Cui Yu pointed to the leaves in the official office and said: “There are still leaves here. Why is there a drought?" Then the people who asked for relief were beaten up.

面对大规模干旱和蝗灾的蔓延,当时,有人向唐朝的山州天文台崔宇大声疾呼,称呼干旱和蝗灾的严重性。没想到,崔瑜指着办公室里的叶子说:“这里还有叶子。为什么会发生干旱?”然后,要求救济的人遭到殴打。

Under such large-scale droughts and locust plagues one after another, the entire bureaucracy of the Tang Dynasty remained indifferent from top to bottom.

在如此大规模的干旱和蝗灾相继发生的情况下,唐代的整个官僚机构从上到下仍然无动于衷。

In the second year of Qianfu (875), when the locust plague was raging, Wang Xianzhi led a three-year large-scale peasant uprising in Puzhou (now Juancheng, Shandong), where the locust plague was the worst.

在前夫第二年(875年),蝗灾肆虐之时,王先志领导了一次为期三年的大规模农民起义,地点在蒲县(今山东Juan城),那里蝗灾最为严重。

In the three years of Tang Xizong's neutralization (883), Huang Chao led his army to break through Chang'an. Soon after Tang Dynasty officials counterattacked into the city, Huang Chao counterattacked again and entered Chang'an. In this repeated struggle, first the Tang Dynasty officials looted the city of Chang'an, and then angered the residents of Chang’an who helped Huang Chao of the officials and ordered the army to massacre the city.

在唐熙宗被废除的三年(883年)中,黄超率军攻破长安。唐朝官员进城后不久,黄超再次进城,进手机软件入长安。在这种反复的斗争中,唐朝官员首先洗劫了长安市,然后激怒了长安居民,后者帮助了官员黄超并命令军队屠杀了这座城市。

After this bloody and repeated struggle, Chang'an City was destroyed on a large scale. In this regard, the late Tang poet Wei Zhuang, who experienced this firsthand, wrote in his famous long poem "Qin Fu Yin":

经过反复的血腥斗争,长安市被大规模摧毁。在这方面,亲身经历过此事的唐代诗人魏壮在其著名的长诗《秦夫吟》中写道:

During the Huangchao Rebellion in 883 AD, at that time, Chang'an City had "palaces, residences, and Luli burned six or seven ten times", and the magnificent and glorious Daming Palace was burnt down to the Hanyuan Palace.

公元883年的黄朝叛乱期间,长安市“宫廷,民居,六里烧了六,七个十次”,宏伟而辉煌的大明宫被烧毁为汉源宫。

After the Huangchao Rebellion was settled, from 883 to 904, in just 21 years, Chang'an City experienced three turmoil successively. Among them, in 885, when the eunuch Tian Lingzi hijacked Tang Xizong to withdraw from Chang'an, he ordered the whole city to be set on fire. In the imperial capital, “the palace is in depression, and the grass is lush”, “only the three palaces of Zhaoyang and Penglai remain”;

黄朝叛乱定居后,从883年到904年,短短21年间,长安市先后经历了三场骚乱。其中,885年,太监田令子劫持唐熙宗从长安撤军时,他下令纵火焚烧整个城市。在帝都,“宫殿处于低谷,草木茂盛”,“仅剩下朝阳和蓬莱的三座宫殿”;

Although the city of Chang'an has been repaired since then, in the third year of Emperor Zhaozong of Tang Dynasty (896), the warlord Li Maozhen invaded Chang'an from Qizhou (Fengxiang, Shaanxi), killing and setting fire everywhere in the city. At this point, the entire Chang'an City "golden the palaces and chambers into ashes, and since the neutralization has been done, the sweeping efforts have been done."

尽管长安城从那时起就得到了修复,但是唐朝宗皇帝第三年(896年),军阀李茂真从Qi州(陕西凤翔)入侵长安,在这里各处烧死并纵火。市。在这一点上,整个长安市“把宫殿和房间变成灰烬,并且自从中和以来,就付出了巨大的努力”。

The fourth and last devastating blow to Chang'an City came from Zhu Wen. On the first month of the first year of Tang Zhaozong Tianyou (904), the warlord Zhu Wen forced Tang Zhaozong to move his capital to Luoyang. According to the "Old Tang Book · Zhaozong Ji", Zhu Wen ordered the soldiers and civilians of Chang Ancheng:

长安市遭受的第四次也是最后一次破坏性打击来自朱文。唐朝宗天佑元年(904年)的第一个月,军阀朱闻迫使唐朝宗迁都洛阳。根据《旧唐书·赵宗基》,朱文下令长安城的官兵:

This ancient city was eventually demolished by the warlord Zhu Wen to build Luoyang Palace. As a result, in the four turmoil from 881 to 904, the city of Chang'an, which has experienced many turbulences, finally went to destruction under repeated wars and man-made destruction, and fell into the abyss of fall.

这座古城最终被军阀朱雯拆除,建造了洛阳宫。结果,在从881年到904年的四次动荡中,经历了许多动荡的长安市终于在反复的战争和人为的破坏下被摧毁,并跌入了深渊。

Three years later, in 907, Zhu Wen forced Emperor Tang Ai to "the Zen throne", and then Zhu Wen became the emperor, destroyed the Tang Dynasty, and changed the country's title to beam.

三年后的907年,朱闻迫使唐爱皇帝登上“禅宗宝座”,然后朱闻成为皇帝,摧毁了唐朝,并将国家的头衔改为梁。

The city of Chang'an in the Tang Dynasty was completely destroyed.

唐代的长安城被完全摧毁。

Although Chang'an City was repeatedly destroyed and revived before the Tang Dynasty, from the Huangchao Rebellion at the end of the Tang Dynasty until Zhu Wen ordered the demolition of Chang'an City, Chang'an City has never risen.

尽管长安城在唐朝之前曾多次遭到破坏和复兴,但从唐末的黄朝起义直到朱文下令拆除长安城,长安城从未崛起。

After entering the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, the surrounding areas of Chang'an continued to be chaotic.

进入五朝十国以后,长安周边地区继续处于混乱状态。

In the first year of Qianyu of the Later Han Dynasty (948), after Zhao Siwan captured Chang'an, he confronted the army of the Later Han Dynasty. At that time, the population of Chang'an City had been reduced from one million in the prime of Tang Dynasty to only one hundred thousand. After the War of the Later Han Dynasty, the population of Chang'an City eventually dropped to more than 10,000 people. Compared with the peak period, the population of Chang'an City dropped by 99%.

后汉乾元元年(948年),赵四万攻占长安后,与后汉军队抗衡。那时,长安市的人口已经从唐初的100万减少到了10万。汉末战争以后,长安市的人口最终下降到一万多。与高峰期相比,长安市人口下降了99%。

In the Northern Song Dynasty, the Song people used troops to the northwest, causing long-term turbulence in Chang'an. In the Southern Song Dynasty, the Chang'an area became the front line of the battle between the Song people and the Jin people and the Mongols. It can be said that from the Huangchao Rebellion in 883 to the fall of the Southern Song Dynasty in 1279, the entire Chang'an and Guanzhong areas have been in continuous political and military turmoil.

在北宋,宋人向西北征兵,在长安造成长期动荡。南宋时期,长安地区成为宋人与晋人和蒙古人交战的前线。可以说,从883年的黄潮叛乱到1279年的南宋灭亡,整个长安和关中地区一直处于持续的政治和军事动荡之中。

This turbulent cycle in Chang'an even surpassed the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties. From then on, Chang'an Wang was depressed.

长安的这种动荡周期甚至超过了魏晋南北朝。从此,王长安情绪低落。

Since then, throughout the Five Dynasties, Ten Kingdoms and Song Dynasty, the surrounding areas of Chang'an

从那时起,整个五王朝,十个王国和宋朝,长安周边地区

Later, Li Xianfu, a person in the Southern Song Dynasty, wrote in "The Trip to Chang'an", that Chang'an and Guanzhong Plain that had been in decline:

后来,南宋人李宪复在《长安之行》中写道,长安和关中平原一直在衰落:

In the shattered time and space, the splendid and magnificent Chang'an City in Tang poetry will never come back.

在破碎的时空中,唐诗灿烂而宏伟的长安城永远不会回来。

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